Several gene changes (mutations) have been linked to hypogammaglobulinemia.
One such mutation affects the BTK gene. This gene is needed to help B cells grow and mature. B cells are a type of immune cell that makes antibodies. Immature B cells don’t make enough antibodies to protect the body from infection.
THI is more common in premature infants. Babies normally get antibodies from their mother through the placenta during pregnancy. These antibodies protect them from infections once they’re born. Babies that are born too early don’t get enough antibodies from their mother.
A few other conditions can cause hypogammaglobulinemia. Some are passed down through families and start at birth (congenital). These are called primary immune deficiencies.
- ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)
- autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia (ARA)
- common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)
- hyper-IgM syndromes
- IgG subclass deficiency
- isolated non-IgG immunoglobulin deficiencies
- severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)
- specific antibody deficiency (SAD)
- Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
- x-linked agammaglobulinemia
More often, hypogammaglobulinemia develops as a result of another condition, called secondary or acquired immune deficiencies. These include:
Certain medications can also cause hypogammaglobulinemia, including:
- medicines that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids
- chemotherapy drugs
- antiseizure medications